Rolando's Cisura: characteristics and areas that surround it
The brain is the most relevant set of organs that we possess, since it governs the functioning of the whole organism in such a way that we can keep ourselves alive. If we observe it from the outside, the first thing we can see is the cerebral cortex, a compact region full of wrinkles and creases . These folds form convolutions or turns, as well as grooves and grooves. Among the last, there are two that stand out especially and that allow us to differentiate different lobes: the Sylvian fissure and the Rolando fissure.
In this article let's focus on the fissure of Rolando to analyze what it is and its importance, as well as what regions surround it and some disorders that may arise or that generate relevant effects in it.
- Related article: "Cisura de Silvio: parts of the brain through which it passes"
Rolando's fissure: what are we?
The fissure of Rolando is, together with that of Silvio, one of the most relevant and visible fissures, grooves or crevices of the cerebral cortex. Also called central groove This fissure runs vertically separating the frontal and parietal lobes and with it, at functional level, the motor cortex (area of Brodmann 4) and primary somatosensory cortex (areas 1, 2 and 3 of Brodmann).
This cleavage it is also surrounded by the precentral and postcentral turns and it is found bilaterally, that is, that this furrow appears in both cerebral hemispheres. It appears in the central part of the brain and almost reaches the Sylvian fissure, being separated from it by one of the opercula
In addition to making such a separation, it has been speculated that in the brain matter that forms the Rolando fissure there might be some association between motor and sensory information, in such a way that it would act as a bridge and help integrate both types of information.
This fissure, similar to that of Silvio, is formed early throughout fetal development . Specifically begins to be seen through magnetic resonances from the twenty-eighth week of gestation (although from the twenty-sixth can already be guessed in some cases), appearing from the parietal areas and becoming increasingly visible and deep as the encephalon develops.
Disorders and problems linked to Rolando's fissure
The Rolando or central sulcus is one of the most visible of all the human brain and allows us to make a separation between the frontal and parietal lobes, two of the most relevant brain regions. But the fissure of Rolando sometimes does not appear or can be involved or affected by various problems. Some of them are the following.
Lissencephaly, which can occur completely or incompletely, is a disorder in which throughout fetal development few folds, convolutions and grooves in the brain are formed or formed . It is a problem that can generate repercussions of various kinds, being able to suppose the death of the fetus or the baby in a few years and generating alterations such as cardiorespiratory difficulties or convulsions. Occasionally, children with this condition may not have symptoms, but it is not usual.
- You may be interested: "Lissencephaly: symptoms, causes and treatment"
2. Cerebrovascular accidents
The rupture of blood vessels or the suffering of an ischemia can affect the areas surrounding Rolando's fissure and even flood it. This would generate various problems that could end up affecting the realization of movements and / or the capture of tactile sensations.
3. Rolandic epilepsy
Epilepsy is a disorder in which one or several groups of neurons become hyperexcitable to stimulation and end up generating seizures. Rolandic epilepsy is one of the types of epilepsy that exist , being one of the most frequent and typical of childhood.
The crisis does not generate loss of consciousness, and stands out for starting with a tingling that ends up transforming into an inability to control face and limbs, suffering uncontrollable shaking in these areas and incapacitating him to speak. It is a type of epilepsy usually benign that appears during sleep or in the morning, and is generated by the hyperexcitability of neurons located in the fissure of Rolando .
- Related article: "Types of epilepsies: causes, symptoms and characteristics"
The existence of different types of brain tumors can cause alterations in the physiognomy of the brain , including the displacement of fissures like Rolando's and the destruction of neurons present in their depths or in the surrounding areas.
- Cohen-Sacher, B .; Lerman-Sagie, T .; Lev, D .; Malinger, G.(2006). Sonographic developmental milestones of the fetal cerebral cortex: a longitudinal study. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 27: 494-502.
- Toi, A .; Lister, W.S. & Fong, K.W. (2004), How early are fetal cerebral sulci visible at prenatal ultrasound and what is the normal pattern of early fetal sulcal development ?. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 24: 706-715.