The 25 main organs of the human body
Our body is not a homogenous and uniform mass. We are complex organisms, being formed by a great amount of different types of cells, tissues, organs and systems that in their totality allow to a greater or lesser extent our survival and adaptation to the environment.
The organs of the human body are a fundamental part of this set , there being a great variety of them throughout the human body. In this article we will briefly review just that, the main organs of the human body.
- Maybe you're interested: "The 10 branches of Biology: its objectives and characteristics"
Reviewing the concept: what is an organ?
Although it is something that most people already know, it is a good idea to make a brief mention of what we consider an organ since there can often be confusion between that concept and that of tissue.
We consider everything as an organ set of associated organic tissues that make up a structured whole and organized as a unit , can by itself perform one (or several) specific functions within the body. Generally organs are associated with each other forming different systems, which together regulate the different processes linked to specific physiological and behavioral functionalities.
Although practically all the organs have their function, the truth is that not all are fundamental to our survival , there are some that are more relevant than others and even organs without which it is possible to live. Likewise, we also possess some elements inherited from our ancestors whose role is merely vestigial.
Main organs of the human body
There is a huge amount of different organs spread throughout our body. Although technically more than eighty different organs can be found and classified in the human body, in this article we are going to focus on some of the most fundamental and recognizable as such.
The so-called king organ, the brain is the nucleus of the nervous system and the person in charge of managing the set of bodily functions through the sending of nervous signals that govern the rest of organs and systems. His performance allows life (in fact, brain death is considered as real death) and the performance of any type of behavior. Perception and movement, as well as intellectual abilities, are produced by their performance and proper functioning. It is formed by neurons and glial tissues.
- Related article: "Parts of the human brain (and functions)"
Organ formed by muscle tissue and core of the cardiovascular system, the heart Its main function is the pumping of blood throughout the body . Thanks to its performance we can take oxygen and nutrients to other organs and body systems, allowing their survival.
The lungs are another of the main organs of the body, and in this case they are the main element of the respiratory system . These are two large organs that occupy much of the thorax and whose main function is to obtain oxygen from the environment to allow cellular respiration while eliminating carbon dioxide and other waste generated by the functioning of the body. These elements are taken from the lungs to the rest of the body or from the organs to the lungs through the blood.
The so-called second brain, is another of the organs that allow our survival. It is the body responsible for diluting the food we eat thanks to the acids present in it and those sent by various vesicles and other organs of the system. Thanks to his performance we can digest the food and subsequently absorb their nutrients
Important organ of the human body and part of the digestive system, its action allows us to metabolize the nutrients and the different substances that we consume. It is also essential when it comes to eliminating and purging elements interpreted as harmful to the body.
Another of the most important organs of the body, the pancreas form part of the digestive and endocrine system. It secretes different enzymes and hormones that allow the management and regulation of different elements, such as the glycemic level through insulin secreted by the islets of Langerhans, or glucagon or ghrelin.
7. Intestines (thick and thin)
The large and small intestines are a main part of the digestive tract, in addition to the longer one. Its importance is crucial, since by passing the previously digested food in the stomach they are responsible for absorb nutrients , in such a way that allows our survival.
A fundamental element of the organism, these organs allow the purification and filtering of the blood in such a way that the toxins and waste generated by the corporal functioning through the excretory system can be eliminated. In addition, it allows the reabsorption of blood to re-send it through the circulatory system and acts as an important element in body homeostasis and the regulation of blood pressure.
This organ (although some authors consider it only a gland) is part of the immune system and has great importance for our survival. And it is that in the thymus we can find the organ in which the T lymphocytes, white blood cells fundamental for the defense of the organism against bacterial aggressions and external toxic substances and that are generated in the spinal cord, mature and differentiate.
Although formerly it was believed that the spleen was an organ without function or even vestigial, the truth is that although it is possible to live without it, it does have relevant functions for our health. In fact, it is considered part of the lymphatic system and the largest organ of that system.
To start the spleen fulfills the important function of serving as a store of blood, which allows maintaining adequate and constant levels of this element circulating through our body. But it does not limit its function to being a mere warehouse: also is part of the lymphatic and immune systems , acting as a filter and contributing to the synthesis of antibodies. It also helps to destroy damaged red blood cells and the balance of fluids in the body. Finally, this organ is characterized by having hematopoietic cells, immature stem cells that can end up generating different cell types depending on the need.
An important part of the organism is the bladder, an organ in the form of a small sac that stores urine, a product of the filtering carried out by the kidneys, and which will later allow the expulsion through the urethra.
The sensory organs are also very relevant for our survival, since they allow us to detect what happens outside. The eyes are one of the most important sensory organs, allowing us the perception of images through the capture of light stimuli, these images being later processed by the brain.
- Maybe you're interested: "The 11 parts of the eye and its functions"
13. The ear
The ear is a sensory structure that allows us to capture the information coming from the vibration of the waves, being able to capture sounds thanks to it. However, it is a structure made up of multiple elements. One of the most relevant is the organ of Corti , being this the authentic one responsible for the capture of auditory stimuli.
Identified as the main olfactory organ, the elements that are part of the nose allow the detection and identification of odors. In addition, it is through the nostrils through which most people (although some breathe through the mouth) introduces oxygen from the outside into our body and excretes the carbon dioxide produced in the breath. It acts as a filter for microorganisms and it heats the air that enters the body. Special mention deserves the vomeronasal organ or Jacobson, linked to the perception of pheromones.
Organ formed by muscle tissue that is essential for multiple functions such as feeding or communicating orally. In it we can find the taste buds, which allow us to capture the flavors of different foods or substances that come into contact with our mouth.
The penis is one of the main existing male sexual organs. It is an erectile element that allows intercourse when filling their cavernous bodies with blood and the transmission of semen to the outside. In addition, unlike in women, it also allows the expulsion of urine through the same organ.
Part of the reproductive and endocrine system , are two structures that generate and store sex hormones such as testosterone and male reproductive cells, sperm.
Organ in the form of a gland that is part of the male reproductive system and whose main function is to secrete substances that allow the survival and protection of sperm, being essential in the production of semen.
Female sexual organ that enjoys the privilege of being the point of the organism with the highest number of nerve endings in the human body . Its only known function at the moment is to provide pleasure during the sexual act or with its stimulation through other means. Curiously, the penis and clitoris arise throughout the development from the same structure, and both can erect.
Located above the fallopian tubes, the ovaries are female sex organs that are also part of the endocrine system.It deals with the structures in which the ovules are produced and developed, as well as one of the main producers of estrogen and progesterone in women.
Organ formed mainly by muscle and endothelial tissue , it is the part of the female body that houses the future baby while it is gestating and in which it is provided with food and oxygen through the blood vessels.
One of the organs most visible externally, the skin is the layer of tissue that covers our body and separates us from external stimulation, being a protective element. In addition to that, it protects us against dehydration and participates in the regulation of body temperature and the excretion (through the sweat glands in it present) of toxins. It is an adaptable and flexible organ of great importance for our survival, and which, however, is not usually given the same attention as other large organs.
Our bones can be considered an organ, whose main function is the protection of the main organs (brain, heart and lungs) and the maintenance of a body structure that allows our basic functionality. In addition, they are linked to the creation of blood cells and autoimmunity, as well as warehouse and homeostatic system of substances such as calcium and fats (in the yellow marrow).
Our musculature could also be identified as an organ. Its main function is to allow movement, both voluntary and involuntary (for example, respiratory or proper to digestion), by contracting and dilate.
These small elements present in the mouth could also consider an organ, and may have different functions. The main and most evident is the chewing and preparation of solid foods to be transported through the digestive tract and get the nutrients absorbed. They can also serve as a defensive element against external aggressions, such as that of a predator or a member of our own species. They also participate together with the rest of the bucco-organs in the communication.
... And many more
As we have said, there are about eighty organs that make up our organism, of which we have only exposed some of the most important ones. The esophagus, the urethra, glands like the thyroid ... depending on where we put the limits we will find more or less identifiable structures as organs. There is a lot to investigate.
It can be thought that today we know a lot about the body. However, there is still a lot of misinformation about how our body acts, limiting the available knowledge about different functions and bodily processes to multiple theories more or less accepted.
And even today many advances and discoveries continue to be made. For example, relatively recently the existence of what came to be considered another organ was discovered: the mesentery . This organ is part of the digestive tract, being a retreat of the peritoneum that causes the intestines to remain in place by attaching it to the posterior abdominal wall (although its functions beyond that must still be analyzed to a greater extent). In conclusion, there are many organs and much more research that can be made of the functioning of our body, something that we still largely do not know.