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The Maderismo and the Mexican Revolution: what did they consist of?

The Maderismo and the Mexican Revolution: what did they consist of?

January 25, 2022

Little or very little has been said about one of the most crucial moments in the political-social history of Mexico, but at the beginning of the 20th century a series of events took place that marked the trajectory and destiny of the country during 10 years. The movement of the Maderismo, by its ideologist Francisco I. Madero (1873 - 1913), was a short but intense period of political revolution in the Latin American country.

The maderismo did not last more than a year and a half, among other things, due to its scarce revolutionary nature, internal disagreements of the movement and, finally, by a military coup that was carried out in 1913 by General Victoriano Huerta. and with the blessing of the United States, which politically and logistically supported the uprising against Maderismo. However, the effects of this stage still resonate in the culture of Mexico.

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The precedents of the maderismo

No political or social upheaval can be explained if the background is understood. Mexico had been living for decades a time of governmental secrecy, political corruption and embezzlement of public funds. José de la Cruz Porfirio Diaz (1830 - 1915), president of the country for almost 30 years, intended to extend his mandate with a decree that bridled the mood of society.

The period that Díaz was in power, known as the "porfirismo", laid the foundations of a dictatorial government, repressor with civil rights (such as freedom of the press and organization) and that he led Mexico with an iron fist. He imposed his legitimacy by apologizing for the stability and peace that had been established in the country of previous eras. As often happens in this type of political system, Porfirio came from an outstanding military trajectory, with the support of the elites and the support of the army.

In spite of the economic improvement in general terms and the modernization of the country, the mandate of the dictator Porfirio was characterized by the impoverishment of the social majority, especially the agrarian , who saw how their conditions were deteriorating more and more. As if that were not enough, the personalism and despotism that the Porfirian government acquired intensified even more the voices against him.

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The role of Francisco Madero

As it could not be otherwise, the Maderismo was represented by its highest representative, Francisco Madero, who began his career in politics in 1904, leading anti-reelectionist policies to avoid a new mandate for the governor of his state, Coahuila. Later, he got involved and supported the Mexican Liberal Party in the interest of promoting a more radical change for the country. However, due to ideological discrepancies he left the party.

It was that same year, 1906 when he founded the Anti-reelectionist Party, which had its ideological foundation in the reform of the Mexican electoral system , making it more participatory, more democratic and with the ultimate goal of eliminating the scourge of political corruption. Although it was given less importance by its brief incidence in public life, the Maderismo also collected reforms of the health and education system, making it more accessible to the common people, measures quite advanced for their time.

In this way, Francisco fought with equality of forces against President Porfirio in a social and electoral battle, but he does not even get to participate in the elections. Porfirio decides to imprison Madero, scared of the popular support that his movement and person was acquiring . Obviously, Díaz wins the elections again and Madero decides to go into exile in the US. by failing his attempt to be vice president.

Plan of San Luís and fall of porfirismo

Frustrated at having failed in his plan to assault power by legal and democratic means, Madero understood that the only way to bring down Porfirio was through violence and popular uprising . He did so with the famous San Luis Plan of 1910, where he called to arms for November 20 of that same year. The letter asked all the opposition veto the re-elected government, union against it and the direct fight with arms.

Such was the success of the call to rebellion, that in just a few months the entire country was in the hands of the rebels , guided mainly by the promises of the maderismo to improve the conditions of the proletariat and salaried workers, with measures such as land expropriation and deep agrarian reforms. All this precipitated the exile of Porfirio to the USA.

Failure of the Maderismo

Unfortunately for the country, the trekking turned out to be a mirage. Francisco I Madero did not fulfill most of his promises to the farmers. It took a much more reformist and moderate character than expected , disappointing his followers. Shy measures of redistribution of wealth, of the productive system and more political freedom, were not enough to legitimize the Madero government.

Among opposites within its own bosom, and the nostalgic Porfiristas, the Maderismo was cornered and with no room to maneuver. Because of these facts, the mandate lasted only 15 months, full of instability and fratricidal struggles that were followed by a Coup d'État in 1913 by Victoriano Huerta . Curiously, this historical moment would mark the future of the next decade of the Mexican country, once again plunging into popular revolts and military repression.

La Revolución Mexicana en corto - Bully Magnets (January 2022).

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