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Clexane: functions and side effects of this medicine

Clexane: functions and side effects of this medicine

June 1, 2022

Cardiovascular problems are probably together with dementia and cancer some of the most worrying to the majority of the population, given the importance for our survival that the blood circulates normally by our body and that the heart keeps pumping in the usual way

And it is a fact that a large proportion of elderly people suffer from some type of heart or circulatory problem.

However, medical advances have allowed the development of drugs that allow to treat some of these types of pathologies, such as the well-known Sintrom or the drug we're going to talk about throughout this article: Clexane .


  • Related article: "Cerebral embolism: types, symptoms, sequelae and causes"

What is Clexane?

We call Clexane a type of drug of type anticoagulant of great use in the medical field , as a response to complex cardiovascular problems that endanger the life of the sufferer.

As an anticoagulant, its function is to reduce blood clotting, which although it is usually positive as it helps to stop bleeding in specific cases where this process occurs can greatly hinder the passage of blood and even cause a thrombus. Thus, thanks to the anticoagulant it is possible to keep the blood circulating in a liquid and fluid way and decreasing the risk.


Clexane is a medicine whose active ingredient is enoxaparin sodium, being one of the low molecular weight heparins (which are derived from the non-fractionated) that is obtained from the guts of the pig. It is a drug whose main administration route is intravenous or subdermal, being marketed as prepared syringes. It is not applied orally or intramuscularly.

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Its functions

Clexane is a drug widely used in various conditions in which it can save lives, either as a treatment or even as a prevention of some situations with deadly potential , all of them linked to the cardiovascular system.

One of the main indications is in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis, an alteration in which blood clots plug one of the body's veins , usually directed to the extremities, and that can generate important consequences (including a possible pulmonary embolism).


Also not only during treatment but also as prevention in cases of high risk or to prevent it from happening again in people who have already had it before.

It is also used in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, including some types of angina pectoris and heart attacks, usually as a previous step or in conjunction with other medications, as well as in the prevention of recurrence. Likewise, It has been shown effective to prevent possible thrombi in cases of respiratory or cardiac failure , as well as in people in a coma or who must remain in a lying position (for example in a long convalescence) and even to prevent possible clots in the case of patients who must undergo hemodialysis.

Keep in mind that Clexane can be used at any age from adulthood, including very advanced ages if necessary. However, there are not enough studies carried out with minors that allow knowing if a safe drug is being treated, being a drug that should only be applied to adults.

Possible side effects

This drug has proven to be very useful and has saved multiple lives since its discovery, but like all drugs it is not free of risks and side effects .

First of all, as with the rest of the anticoagulants, it must be taken into account that the fact that the blood is prevented from coagulating causes haemorrhages of varying severity to arise from any part of the body.

Wounds and bruises that appear simple may bleed or cause internal bruising of great relevance, having to be very careful in this regard. This is the most frequent secondary symptom. Also, anemia due to blood loss may also appear as a result of this. Sometimes these hemorrhages can occur at the intestinal, spinal or intracranial level, being their danger much greater.

It has also been observed the possibility of appearance as well as edema, erythema, alopecia dermatitis or even fever. It has been observed that in some cases excessively increases the level of potassium in blood or even triple the levels of transaminases and other liver enzymes. More serious are cases of necrosis or cutaneous vasculitis, hepatic lesions or thrombocytopenia which can paradoxically generate thrombosis (something that makes it necessary to periodically make a platelet count of the subject).

Contraindications

As we have seen, despite being very useful, Clexane can also generate dangerous effects, which can put certain sectors of the population at risk. That is why it has several contraindications.

One of these contraindications can be found in the cases of those people who have allergy or hypersensitivity to this drug and other heparins, as well as to its multiple components. It is totally contraindicated in people at high risk of hemorrhage , including people who are going to undergo surgeries or punctures, people with ulcers, aneurysms or vascular problems in which the walls of the vessels are more fragile.

Also in people with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. People with high levels of potassium in blood should avoid it, and it is not recommended in severe renal failure (with the possible exception of its use in dialysis), as well as extreme caution should be exercised in the case of liver failure.

It is also not recommended, or at least great caution and control is required in diabetic patients due to the adrenal alterations that it can cause. Patients with underweight or obesity should be monitored, since there is an increased risk of bleeding or thrombi. The use of Clexane should be consulted in people taking other drugs. Finally, and as we have indicated previously, since there are no data on this, it is contraindicated in children.

Bibliographic references:

  • Spanish Agency of Medicines and Health Products (2018). Clexane. Data sheet. [On-line]. Available at: //cima.aemps.es/cima/pdfs/es/ft/58503/FT_58503.html.pdf.

Enoxaparin Nursing Considerations, Side Effects, and Mechanism of Action Pharmacology for Nurses (June 2022).


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