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The 5 types of bullying or bullying

The 5 types of bullying or bullying

May 18, 2024

Bullying is a term that has gained popularity over the past few years, but this phenomenon has existed since man exists . Now, what exactly do we mean by bullying or school bullying? This Anglo-Saxon word is used frequently to refer to the typical class thugs. That is, the abusers, either physically or psychologically.

Bullying is a phenomenon that is characterized by harassment harassment and / or intimidation of the abuser on the victim, within the school setting . The stalker enjoys feeling superior to the victim and rejoices with the victim's suffering. The repeated exposure of this condition by the victim can bring serious consequences at the psychological level. In some cases, students who have been victims of bullying may commit suicide.

Harassment in the workplace is called mobbing. You can learn more about this phenomenon in our article: "Mobbing: psychological harassment at work"

The causes of bullying

Bullying is a phenomenon that can be manifested by different causes (personal, family or school), and that is why it can occur in any educational center: whether private or public. Regarding school causes, There seems to be more risk of bullying in large centers than in small ones , because of the difficulty in monitoring the first ones.

A personal cause could be, for example, the low self-esteem of the harasser. Feeling superior to the bullied would be a way to make up for the low self-confidence. Regarding family causes, the origin of the violence of stalking children could be found in the aggressive father model. In addition, the economic tension, the bad relationship between the parents, the acquired values, the absence of rules of coexistence, etc. they could be probable causes of the development of this phenomenon.

Consequences and effects

Victims of bullying they may suffer different negative psychological effects .

An investigation conducted in 2014 at King's College London found that the negative psychological effects suffered by people with bullying remain for 40 years after being the victim of harassment.

This It should make us reflect on the serious psychological impact of harassment in the rest of the affected person's life , presenting worse indicators of their mental and physical health and a worse cognitive performance with respect to individuals who did not suffer harassment.

Let's see what are the negative effects on physical and mental health detected in victims of bullying.

1. Stress

Victims of bullying present stress not only during school but also years later. This follows from a study carried out at Tufts University and reveals that affected people secrete more cortisol, a hormone directly involved in the sensation of stress .

This would explain much of the long-term health consequences for these people, for example the appearance of mental disorders, as pointed out by a study by Johns Hopkins University.

2. Anxiety and depression

Other research, in this case from Duke University, found that bullying victims were more likely to suffer from disorders such as agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder and panic attacks. They also had higher rates of depression and social isolation.

3. Somatizations

They can also present psychosomatic disorders. This was detected in a report published by Randy and Lori Sansone in 2008.

4. Suicide

In the same study conducted at Duke, a higher probability of suicide was found in these people. The first case of suicide of a person who suffered bullying was the young Spanish Jokin, who at age 14 decided to end his life after taking years suffering abuse and harassment at his school in the town of Hondarribia.

5. Problems in socialization and the future of work

The victims of bullying in the school present, statistically, worse indicators in what refers to their quality of family life and their purchasing power in their adult life. They may also suffer worse performance in their social and communication skills, as indicated in this study by Claire Fox and Michael Boulton published in the British Psychological Society.

The types of bullying

But what types of school bullying are there? According to the National Center Against Bullying (NCAB, for its acronym in English) bullying can be classified as follows following different criteria .

1. Verbal bullying

What is it?

Verbal bullying or verbal bullying is characterized because the bully expresses cruel words, insults, threats , intimidation, jokes and exclusionary phrases about the appearance, sexual condition, ethnicity, race or disability of the victim. Children are more sensitive to this type of comment.

Example : When a child says to another child: "You are very, very fat, and your mother too".

How to detect it?

Children who are victims of this type of bullying may be absent, moody, or show a change in appetite. They can also say something of what they have been told and ask if it is true.

2. Physical bullying

What is it?

Physical bullying is characterized by aggressive and intimidating behavior by the harasser , which includes kicks, punches, tripping, blocking or pushing. It is the best known form of Bullying.

Example : A child is bullied by another child who drops his pants at recess

How to detect it?

Unfortunately, many children do not tell their parents what has happened. But parents can detect if their child is suffering from physical school bullying because This type of bullying usually leaves marks on the body of the victim , which sends an alarm signal. Some of these corporal marks are: cuts, bruises, broken clothes, etc. In addition, the victim may complain frequently of headaches or belly pains.

3. Social or relational bullying

What is it?

This type of bullying is more complicated to detect and usually happens behind the victim's back. The objective is usually that the person does not join or is not part of a group . Whether in the dining room, in the recreational soccer games or any social or educational activity of the center, the victim is disowned or disowned by his peers.

Example : A group of girls in a gym class take their photos about a party in which one of the girls in the class was not invited, and being present, they treat her as if she were invisible.

How to detect it?

It is common for the victim to show mood swings, avoid peer groups and be alone more than usual . Girls are more prone to suffer this type of bullying. The emotional pain produced by social bullying can be just as intense as that suffered by physical bullying and the aftermath can last even longer.

4. Cyberbullying

What is it?

Cyberbullying is a phenomenon that was born due to the rise of social networks . It is characterized by harassment or intimidation produced through social networks, text messages and emails. Through the digital medium, the harasser spreads false rumors, lies, threats, sexist or racist comments, causing enormous discomfort and psychological and emotional problems in the victim.

Example : When a guy tweets or publishes a state on Facebook, "Ramón is a loser. How is it possible that he has a girlfriend? I'm sure his girlfriend just wants it for the money. "

How to detect it?

It is possible that the victim of cyberbullying spends a lot of time online and is sad and anxious after . In addition, the person who suffers this type of harassment (and any form of bullying) may have trouble sleeping, and may beg to not go to school, absent from activities that previously enjoyed.

5. Carnal bullying

What is it?

This type of bullying is possibly the most complicated to analyze, because many people refuse to accept that there are children who perform this type of behavior. This kind of bullying at school is characterized by sexist or obscene comments, by touching the victim in intimate places or pressuring her to do something she does not want (for example, watch movies for adults). This kind of bullying can cause serious psychological problems and mark forever the intimate and emotional relationships of the victim.

Example : A child in class forces a girl to kiss him repeatedly.

How to detect it?

Generally, the victim of this type of bullying will not express what happens to him, but You will avoid situations where you may encounter the harasser . For example, not attending school.

The diversity of violence in school

The existence of different types of bullying shows us to what extent actions aimed at harming or attacking others can take different forms. For this reason, it is the responsibility of adults and caregivers to detect these forms of physical or psychological violence and put them on hold, focusing on the needs of the victims.

It is crucial that stereotypes about what is violence and what is not do not serve as an excuse to make invisible and normalize unacceptable behaviors that, although they have nothing to do with beatings or injuries, leave psychological marks that can distort the quality of life of children for years.

Bibliographic references:

  • From Acevedo, A. (2010). Someone is bothering me: bullying. Editions B.
  • Barri, F. (2006). S.O.S. Bullying: Prevent School Harassment and Improve Coexistence. Praxis, S.A.
  • Norman K.J., Seiden J.A., Klickstein J.A., Han X., Hwa .LS., Et al. (2015). Social stress and escalated drug self-administration in mice I.Alcohol and corticosterone. Psychopharmacology.
  • Ricou Sanz, J. (2005). Bullying RD Editors.

Types of bullying (May 2024).

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