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Dyslexia: 10 intervention guidelines for educators

Dyslexia: 10 intervention guidelines for educators

May 29, 2024

Dyslexia has become one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in children in recent years. Although it is very complex to detect an exact percentage of prevalence due to the problems to establish a clear diagnosis in a rigorous way, the latest studies affirm that approximately 15% of the school students present such difficulties. For this reason, it seems increasingly necessary to define what psycho-pedagogical and psychological orientations are most effective in effectively addressing this population group.

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Dyslexia: main indicators

Dyslexia is the usual nomenclature that receives the Specific Learning Disorder (ASD) related to the presence of difficulties in the ability of reading and writing . According to the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in its most updated version (2013), it refers to the presence of difficulties in the fluid recognition of words, poor reading decoding in the spelling ability and deficits in reading comprehension.

further may be accompanied by alterations in written expression or mathematical reasoning , which must be specified additionally in the initial diagnosis. Another key aspect is the presence of a level of general intellectual capacity preserved, so that the TEA-Literacy is incomptible with significant levels of mental disability, as well as can not be explained by sensory deficits, either visual or auditory. The difficulties indicated must be valid for a minimum period of six months and must cause a significant interference in the student's academic development.

More specifically, when observing the following behaviors that are exposed below, we can suspect the presence of a TEA-Literacy, from which it is necessary to propose a comprehensive psychopedagogical evaluation that corroborates said indications:

  • Altered placement or omission when writing letters that make up a word
  • Difficulty in the acquisition of reading ability, low reading fluency.
  • Confusion or forgetting some words .
  • Difficulty to establish the temporal sequence between days, months, etc.
  • Alteration in the attention capacity and concentration difficulties.
  • Greater mastery in manipulative tasks by enzymes of verbal activities.
  • Better oral expression than written .
  • Lack of mastery of the alphabet or multiplication tables.
  • Need to read a text several times , poor written comprehension.
  • Greater mastery of creative or imaginative capacity.

Orientations in the educational attention in children with dyslexia

As educators, it is essential to take into account the following guidelines when dealing with a child with this particularity, since an empathic attitude, reinforcing their potentialities and flexible according to their difficulties they will have a protective effect in order to avoid problems of low self-concept or self-esteem and even more long-term school failure situations:

1. Establish a daily reading habit of about 20 minutes maximum duration

The content of this reading is recommended to be of a theme of interest to the child, regardless of whether it is a story, a magazine or a comic. The relevant point is that you acquire a positive attitude for reading. It will also be necessary to assess whether the volume of school readings to be made during the course should be limited.

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3. Flexibility in spelling correction

It seems more effective the priority work of 3-4 orthographic rules until its domain to later add new ones.

5. Provide brief, concise statements and requests

Use short phrases to give directions using visual support that can be used as a reference. The indications must be segmented and expressed gradually. It also seems fundamental adapt the statements of exercises and exams so that they can be understood by the child, allowing specific explanatory clarifications.

6. Establish a plan of objectives adapted to each case

In these objectives, realistic and assumable goals must be specified by the student, either weekly, monthly or quarterly.

7. Facilitate planning of activities, homework, exams well in advance

In this way, the student with dyslexia You can organize your study time , dosing your work in order to avoid feeling overwhelmed.

8. Reinforce positively the effort made by the student

This must be done not prioritizing the result obtained at a quantitative level . In many cases there is a decrease in the motivation to perform school work, so the support of the educator will be essential for the child.

9. Avoid as educators comparisons with other class children, siblings, etc.

As it has been indicated, it is very frequent that the self-esteem of this type of students is affected. This fact can greatly harm their academic performance and the achievement of their potential .

10. Emphasize their autonomy when carrying out their school tasks

It is very positive to transmit the idea to the student of his potential learning capacity. It is recommended flee from overprotection regarding the non-fulfillment of their academic responsibilities .

Due to its general cognitive capacity preserved the child is able to assume their school obligations, although these are adapted to their specific difficulties. The application of these adaptations is evaluated from the educational center in order to adapt quantitatively and qualitatively the methodology, the correction criteria and the learning objectives for each student individually.

In conclusion

As mentioned in the text, usually the assimilation of the presence of psychopedagogical difficulties in the student is a process that can significantly interfere with the psychological development of the child, causing in certain situations an aggravation of the initial diagnostic situation. Thus, early detection and intervention of the indicated deficits is a fundamental process to prevent further deterioration in the different vital areas of the child, both in the academic and emotional aspects.

Bibliographic references:

  • American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Tamayo Lorenzo, S. Dyslexia and difficulties in the acquisition of literacy. Faculty, 21 (1): 423-432 (2017).

Supporting Students with Dyslexia: Standards, Accommodations, and Strategies (May 2024).

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