Stalking: a new form of extreme harassment
Following a person, calling them by phone, sending gifts, letters or messages, are behaviors that seen in isolation, do not contain criminal connotations or assume any crime, but what happens when someone decides to focus on one person and carry them out? repeated way, making her, on occasion, come to fear for his life?
This is the case of the Stalking or pressing harassment syndrome .
What exactly is stalking?
Although there is still no scientifically established definition for this phenomenon, a series of characteristics that the authors agree to mention can be found. According to these, this syndrome describes a pattern in which the affected (stalker), which can be both male and female, pursues an obsessive and persistent victim, without the refusals of this make you change your mind .
The stalker uses all kinds of means to get close to the victim, phone calls, text messages, e-mails, letters, write his name in public places, give him gifts, spy in his home, follow him and harassed on the street or at your workplace, in public spaces, etc. In the most serious cases, the victim may receive threats, see their accounts hacked on the Internet (both public profiles and emails) and / or suffer some type of violent crime.
The effects of stalking on the harassed person
It's no wonder why, that the person who suffers this continuous harassment present pictures of anxiety, insecurity and fear , in addition, of a continuous fear for their physical integrity and feelings of persecution and destabilization.
For these reasons, in many cases they are forced to modify their daily habits, their telephone number and, sometimes, even their work and home.
Psychological profile of the stalker
Who can become a victim of the persistent harassment syndrome? The answer to this question does not stop being disturbing, since any person can be affected and be a victim of this type of harassment. It would be logical to think that this type of behavior only occurs in people who have previously maintained some kind of sentimental relationship, but the reality is that they can also occur with friends, neighbors, co-workers or even with a stranger. So, apparently, it is not necessary that there has previously been a degree of intimacy of the victim with the stalker.
From the psychology it is tried to give an explanation to the causes that motivate the behavior of the stalkers . Some authors affirm that behind their behaviors there are feelings of anger, hostility, obsession, feelings of guilt or jealousy and malice. These feelings are what have led to a classification based on what is the feeling that predominates in each stalker.
- Stalker resentful : Its main motivation is to frighten and oppose the victim for whom he feels resentment and resentment.
- Predatory Stalker : This type of stalker stalks the victim for sexual reasons until he finds the time to attack her.
- Stalker rejected : In this case, stalks the victim with vengeful intentions or to resume a relationship that the victim has broken.
- Stalker ineffective suitor : Usually a person with few communication skills and with few social relationships, so you can become obsessed with someone with whom you identify.
- Stalker eager for privacy : The main motivation of this stalker is an irresistible desire for a loving relationship with the victim, which he considers his soul mate.
Extreme harassment in the Spanish Penal Code
Despite the serious repercussions this type of behavior may have for the victim, Until relatively recently, in Spain there was no law regulating this type of harassment .
It is not until the entry into force of the Organic Law 1/2015 of March 30 that modifies the previous Organic Law 10/1995 of the Penal Code, which begins to value the Stalking as a crime that threatens the freedom to act of the person and that can carry a prison sentence of between three months and two years or fines ranging from six to twenty-four months, "increasing the penalty if the victim is especially vulnerable because of their age, illness or situation."
- Lorena Pérez (2016). Stalking: characteristics of bullying behaviors. Available in ForCrim: //www.forcrim.com/stalking-caracteristicas-acoso/