What is gender equity?
There are many theoretical concepts that try to establish certain criteria when evaluating and promulgating equality between people. One of them is the concept of gender equality , that today we will try to describe and know in depth.
Equity and gender
Fairness, justice and equality are the parts on which the concept of equity is based, on the other hand, the way to associate and group individuals who share at least one or more characteristics is gender.
Gender equality and equity
"The different behaviors, aspirations and needs of women and men are considered, valued and favored in the same way"
-ABC of women workers for gender equality; Geneva, 2000, p. 47-48
Equality between men and women is protected by gender equity in the use of social services and goods . Which means suppressing discrimination between the sexes and not favoring, preferably, the man over the woman in the aspects that make up social life, as happened, in a usual way, decades ago in the whole of Western society.
Conditions for gender equity
"The rights, responsibilities and opportunities of each one will not depend on whether the person is a man or a woman"
However, in order for gender equity to occur, two essential circumstances must be generated. On one side, equality of opportunities and on the other create a series of conditions to take advantage of these opportunities .
We must bear in mind that gender equity means creating standards for those existing opportunities and distributing them fairly between both sexes . Men and women must have the same opportunities for development in all aspects; on a personal level, the opportunity to grow, realize oneself and be happy, as in the workplace. The state, therefore, must ensure that resources are allocated proportionally.
"Men and women will be treated with justice according to their own needs. The treatment given to each one may be different but equivalent in terms of rights, benefits, obligations, and opportunities. "
Gender equity at work
The woman can not have a lower remuneration with respect to the man at the time of performing the same functions as far as the labor scope is concerned, they must obtain the same according to their merits and one gender should not be favored to the detriment of the other . Regardless of gender, equal remuneration must be received in the same job, with the same responsibilities and obligations.
We must add a very important aspect, equity does not mean neglecting the characteristics of each gender in particular, an example of this is that women are entitled, in the same way men, to a longer maternity leave than a paternity leave . In this case, we attend to strictly biological questions and carry out what is called a positive discrimination between the two sexes .
What do we mean by positive discrimination?
Next we will explain a crucial concept at the moment of applying equity, it is about positive discrimination or affirmative action This term is key: it refers to actions aimed at reducing discriminatory practices against sectors , that culturally throughout history, have been excluded and considered as uprooted and vulnerable.
An example would be the individuals with some physical or mental disability and in the same way the women, who because of the influence of the Jewish-Christian and patriarchal culture, have been relegated to the category of second-order individuals. All this is further aggravated if, because of the gender, the woman also meets the condition of suffering some decrease as well as we mentioned or any other culturally negative characteristic.
Positive discrimination is translated into specific legislation designed to equalize job opportunities , exercise of democratic rights, participation in state institutions and government bodies, as well as access to education. For all this, countless years of mobilizations and social demands have been necessary.
One example is the laws for the protection of women in cases of gender violence, favoring mixed education or non-segregation by sex, financial aid or tax exemptions, among other measures.
In some developed countries, the result of positive discrimination has been very effective in the progressive equalization of women in the labor market.
What progress has positive discrimination occurred?
It should be noted that significant progress is being made to achieve this equity. . We find, to mention a fact, that in the Spanish state the so-called parity between men and women in the political sphere is promoted.
There are organizations that are exclusively dedicated to gender equity. These entities promote equality between men and women while advocating for women's rights. Constantly elaborate useful political propositions to achieve equity , thus favoring women to be present and participate in all sectors of society.
Then it is interesting to remember the most important events in relation to women's rights and equality and equity. As the Committee for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women of 1982 and recommendation 19 that clarified that violence against women is a form of discrimination. Another event would be the unprecedented mobilization of 1993 to demand the World Conference on Human Rights that it would be positioned in favor of their rights and that led to the creation of article 18; That says so:
"The human rights of women and girls are an inalienable and indivisible part of universal human rights. The full participation, under conditions of equality, of women in political, civil, economic, social and cultural life and the eradication of all forms of discrimination based on sex are priority objectives of the international community. "
"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights" (...) "Every person has all the rights and freedoms proclaimed in this Declaration, without distinction of race, color, sex, language, religion, political opinion or of any other nature, national or social origin, economic position, birth or any other condition "
-Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Article 1 and 2
"Spaniards are equal before the Law, without any discrimination based on birth, race, sex, religion, opinion or any other condition or personal or social circumstance prevailing"
-The Spanish Constitution of 1978; Article 14