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The 4 types of stroke (symptoms and causes)

The 4 types of stroke (symptoms and causes)

May 23, 2024

Attacks or strokes are the leading cause of death due to disease in women and the second in men in the whole Spanish territory, registering between 150 and 250 per 100,000 inhabitants in just one year. Likewise, 24.7% of people who suffer a stroke end up with some type of disability.

Fortunately, there are means and treatments that can drastically moderate the damages caused by these brain accidents; but for this it is necessary to identify what type of stroke the person has suffered , since each of them is characterized by having different causes and consequences.

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what is a stroke?

Stroke is an alteration of the blood flow to the brain. When this happens, the brain stops receiving the oxygen necessary to function properly and the areas of this that are affected begin to die.

The effects that this type of accident causes can become harmful for the person, affecting the entire body. These consequences can range from vision problems to different degrees, disturbances in speech, cognitive deficits or motor problems , up to body paralysis also to different degrees.

Strokes are also part of a broad category of impairments in brain function, such as stroke, stroke, stroke, stroke, or cerebral infarction.

  • Related article: "Stroke: definition, causes, symptoms and treatment"

Types of stroke

There are two main distinctions within strokes. One of them is the ischemic stroke, which is the cause of 80% of strokes, while the rest attacks are caused by the so-called hemorrhagic stroke.

1. Ischemic stroke

Ischemic is the most common of brain accidents. The cause of this is the formation or arrival of a blood clot which blocks or interferes with the flow of a blood vessel in the brain, interrupting the arrival of blood to the brain.

In the course of a few minutes the brain cells begin to die for lack of oxygen and nutrients, causing any of the consequences named above.

The symptoms of a person suffering an ischemic stroke are:

  • Weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg
  • Confusion and problems in speech or understanding
  • Sudden vision problems
  • Sudden severe headaches with no apparent cause

Likewise, there are transient ischemic attacks (AIT) , also known as mini-strokes. The transient ischemic attack is characterized by having symptoms similar to those of ischemic stroke, but without the persistent effects of it. Suffering one of these attacks can be a prelude to a more serious ischemic attack, so it is very important to know how to correctly identify it.

Likewise, ischemic strokes can be divided into two subgroups and categories: thrombotic strokes and embolic strokes.

Thrombotic stroke

Thrombotic effusions are strokes caused by a blood clot called a thrombus, which originates in the arteries that irrigate the blood in the brain.

Usually, the symptoms of this type of stroke appear suddenly, especially during the hours of sleep or in the morning. However, at other times the symptoms occur gradually for hours or days, in which case it is designated as an evolving stroke.

This subclass of stroke is common in elderly people, who have high cholesterol levels and arteriosclerosis.

Embolic stroke

Unlike thrombotic attack, embolic strokes are the result of an embolus. An embolus is a blood clot that originates in any part of the body and is transported to the brain by the bloodstream.

These attacks can also appear suddenly and are characteristic in people suffering from heart disease or have had some type of heart surgery.

2. Hemorrhagic stroke

Being the less common subtype of the accident, hemorrhagic stroke is caused by the fracture or tear of a blood vessel, with the consequent bleeding inside the brain and the destruction of the cells of the brain.

This type of hemorrhagic accident usually occurs in people with high blood pressure, this blood pressure stretches the arterial walls until they break.

Likewise, Another common cause is the so-called aneurysm , a fragile point in the arterial walls that is arching, due to the pressure with which the blood circulates, until finally it breaks and causes the effusion. These aneurysms can be congenital and present from birth, or due to alterations such as hypertension or arteriosclerosis.

The symptoms of a stroke appear suddenly. Among these symptoms are:

  • Muscle weakness and / or numbness in one part of the body
  • Vision problems
  • Difficulties in speech
  • Agnosia
  • Sudden headaches and no known origin
  • Vertigo sensation
  • Fainting and dizziness
  • Coordination problems
  • Difficulties in swallowing
  • Drowsiness

Like the ischemic stroke, there are two subtypes of hemorrhagic strokes : intracerebral hemorrhagic and subarachnoid hemorrhages.

Intracerebral hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage consists of bleeding from the veins or arteries inside the brain . As a rule, bleeding starts suddenly and evolves very quickly; without producing any kind of warning signal and being so serious that it can cause a coma or even death.

The most common cause of this type of intracerebral hemorrhage is hypertension, that is, high blood pressure.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

In hemorrhages of this kind the effusion or bleeding is located in the subarachnoid space . This is between the encephalon and the membranes that cover them, called meninges. The main causes of these strokes are two:

  • Existence or appearance of an aneurysm.
  • Arteriovenous malformations (AVM). These malformations are part of a congenital alteration which causes the appearance of entangled webs and veins and arteries.

Stroke : Types, Symptoms, Risk Factors & Recovery | Stroke Treatment | MaxCure Hospitals (May 2024).

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