Types of sexism: the different forms of discrimination
Although human societies have made much progress in terms of equality, there are still entrenched forms of discrimination between practically all cultures. Sexism is one of these discriminatory practices s, and it exists in both actions and thoughts.
However, it is not always easy to recognize. Often appears camouflaged in alternative ways, or appears expressed in attitudes so widespread and assumed that it costs to see them as such. That's why it's important know the different types of sexism and the way they can be found on a day-to-day basis.
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What is sexism?
Before moving on to see their types, it is necessary to have a clear idea about what sexism is and how it is expressed through what we do.
One definition could be this: sexism is a type of discrimination based on biological sex or gender of people.
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Types of sexism
There is not a single criterion to propose a categorization of the different types of sexism , which means that there are several possible classifications according to different criteria.
For example, we can look at who is targeted by sexism, or focus our attention on the way it is expressed.
According to whom it is addressed
Considering the type of person on whom sexism is applied, this can take the following forms:
This type of sexism is very common, and is directed towards people whose biological sex corresponds to your gender identity (female) .
This form of sexism applies to people whose gender identity does not correspond to your biological sex . It is especially serious, since these discriminatory attacks are added to the anxiety and emotional pain that in itself produces gender dysphoria, a psychological phenomenon that occurs in some transsexual people and about which you can read more in this article: " Gender dysphoria: being born in the wrong body. "
Sexism against intersex people
This is one of the least widespread types of sexism, since intersex persons are relatively few in number. The intersexuality consists of a discrepancy between the design of the genitals and the chromosomal charge that is possessed (XX or XY). This ambiguity about sex attributable to a person causes rejection in many cultures, including the Western one.
This type of sexism is very related to the concept of misandry , that is, the aversion towards men in general.
According to the way in which sexism is expressed
If before we have seen a classification of the types of sexism based on its content, now we turn to its forms.
Hostile sexism is embodied in attitudes and actions based on hostility, aggression and physical or symbolic violence . For example, beating someone for their gender is a clear form of sexism of this kind.
Some subtypes of this kind of sexism are the following:
- By transgression of the domestic : sexism based on the rejection of women's access to the public facet of society, that is, the one that is beyond domestic and reproductive tasks.
- For sexual reasons : through this one attempts to violate the way in which one's sexuality is experienced.
This is one of the types of sexism that go unnoticed, as it can be seen through acts that they could be understood as initiatives of kindness .
For example, explaining someone a very basic topic as if they had no way of understanding more elaborate discourses can be sexism, the interlocutor is a woman, since the female gender has been traditionally away from intellectual tasks.
In the same way, going to the woman's aid so that she does not have to make any physical effort can also be an act framed in this type of sexism, if it is done in a systematic and generalized way.
This type of sexism is not expressed through violence either, but it also has nothing to do with the apparent kindness or condescension. These are actions that, due to their forms, tacitly express an affirmation in traditional gender roles without any other justification other than custom.
For example, asking a woman about when she plans to find a husband to support her is an example of this type of sexism.
This kind of sexism is often supported by an essentialist view of biology applied to the human being.For example, it is understood that as historically women and females of most mammal species are more involved in raising than males and males, there is some kind of link between the feminine and the care of the little ones.
However, this perspective not by reductionist and biologist is more scientific . If this were the case, for example, it would not have been the case that millions of women began to leave the house to devote themselves to tasks that go beyond the domestic and the home, as has happened in less than a century in the past. Western societies.
The mansplaining is a very specific form of sexism that collects elements of the previous two, since there is both condescension and a desire to deny others the ability to participate in a relationship of equal to equal.
It consists of minimizing the opinions of another person (female or not identified with the male gender) and present their own as if they were a description of the reality raised in an easy way so that everyone understands it.