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The 10 branches of Biology: its objectives and characteristics

The 10 branches of Biology: its objectives and characteristics

September 20, 2022

Like any science worth its salt, Biology diversifies its efforts in different disciplines to be able to cover as much knowledge as possible. This is something necessary, because every time there is more information and knowing everything in detail about the science of life is something that can be considered impossible, or for which we would need all the time in the world.

The different branches of biology allow to limit and concentrate knowledge to be able to investigate and continue to advance in the discovery of new information that reveals the mysteries hidden in living beings.

The branches of Biology

Biology is divided into a multitude of disciplines, and as knowledge advances, they appear new. In addition, some narrow with other great sciences that serve to support, as with chemistry or geology. Even so, one can speak of 10 main branches that have served as the basis for the massive diversification of the science of life. Let's start


1. Cell biology

The cell is the primordial unit of living beings , since they are all made up of them. Therefore it is not strange that one of the branches of biology focuses on the study of it. Formerly known as cytology, this discipline, as its name indicates, specializes in the knowledge of the structures and functions carried out by cells.

  • Maybe you're interested: "Types of major cells of the human body"

2. Biology of development

One of the most impressive phenomena of life is how the union of two gametes can generate an entire multicellular organism. I'm talking about Fertilization through a sperm and an egg (in the case of animals) to form a zygote. This branch of biology specializes in the study of all cellular processes that are carried out in the development of a new organism through sexual reproduction.


  • Related article: "The 3 phases of intrauterine or prenatal development: from the zygote to the fetus"

3. Marine biology

The Earth is also known as the blue planet, and is that almost 71% of the extension of this is occupied by water. Life on the seas is not a small thing , proof of this is the fact that there is a whole branch of biology that focuses on the study of it, from the beings that inhabit it to its interaction with the environment.

4. Molecular biology

If I spoke before about cell biology that specializes in the study of the structures and functions of cells, molecular biology focuses on the tools that cells use to carry out such functions. This discipline studies the proteins and the processes that they carry out from them, such as the synthesis of these components or the processes related to metabolism.


5. Botany

Living beings are the main object of study of biology, but there is a great variety of these, so it is necessary to diversify. The botanic He specializes mainly in the study of vegetables , such as plants, shrubs and trees, but also life forms that are not vegetable and yet share characteristics with them, such as algae, fungi and cyanobacteria. All of them have in common a reduced mobility and that can perform photosynthesis (less fungi).

6. Ecology

The environment is a very important element for life and an increasingly current issue. Ecology is the branch of biology that studies the intimate interactions that are established between living beings and their environment or habitat , forming what are known as ecosystems.

  • Related article: "The 6 types of ecosystems: the different habitats we find on Earth"

7. Physiology

If cell biology focuses on the functions of cells, physiology is the discipline that specializes in the study of the processes that occur in organs, that is, functions that are performed from a set of cells. For example, the circulation of internal fluids or breathing mechanisms . There are both physiology for animals and vegetables.

8. Genetics

The cell is the unit of life, but without DNA it would be nothing. The genetic material contains all the information necessary to develop an organism. Therefore, there is a whole discipline that focuses on the study of genetic content, which is none other than genetics. The study of the genome has always been of special interest for biology.

9. Microbiology

Yes botany covers plants mainly, microbiology focuses on the study of microorganisms , unicellular living beings of very small size, only visible through a microscope.Among the beings investigated are bacteria, archaea (formerly called archaebacteria), protozoa (unicellular eukaryotic organisms) or the enigmatic viruses, although it is still debated whether the latter are living beings.

10. Zoology

The last branch of biology that specializes in the study of living beings is zoology, which covers the last of the kingdoms, which is none other than the animals . From sponges to mammals, a wide range of living beings are under their field of study.

Bibliographic references:

  • Audesirk, T. and Audesirk, G. (2008). Biology, Life on Earth. (8th ed.). Mexico: Prentice-Hall, Hispanic American.
  • Karp, G. (1998). Cellular and molecular biology. Mexico: McGraw-Hill Interamericana.
  • Starr, C. and Taggart, R. (2004). Biology, The unity and diversity of life. Mexico: Thompson.

What are the 10 branches of biology and their meaning (September 2022).


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